2014 Tertiary Sector Performance

2014 performance

Enrolments in formal, provider-based tertiary study2 decreased by 2 percent in 2014 in terms of both EFTS and total number of students (figure 3).
Figure 3: Total student numbers, industry trainees and international students, 2011–14
Figure 3: Total student numbers, industry trainees and international students, 2011–14 Notes:
  1. The 2011 ITO results are the first to be produced using data from the Industry Training Register (ITR) and they are not strictly comparable to previous years. More information on the impact of the ITR can be found on the TEC website.
  2. From 2013 all TEOs providing YG funded programmes were required to report via the SDR, prior to this time total EFTS volumes are not avaliable.

Overall, 403,160 students, or 269,070 EFTS (excluding industry training), were enrolled in formal qualifications at TEOs in 2014. Of these, 227,803 EFTS (342,633 students), were SAC enrolments, 31,671 EFTS (47,173 students) were international full-fee paying students, and 9,596 EFTS (13,354 students) were enrolled in Youth Guarantee-funded programmes.

Also in 2014, 131,603 trainees (40,721 STMs) were engaged in industry-based training, including a combined number of Modern Apprenticeships and New Zealand Apprentices of 33,652.

Figure 4: Participation and achievement by sector, 2013 and 2014
Figure 4: Participation and achievement by sector, 2013 and 2014

Figure 4 gives an overview of participation and achievement within each sector.

Overall educational performance either improved or remained on par with the previous year with slight increases for student retention and student progression. Educational performance improved in the PTE sector, remained largely unchanged for universities and ITPs but decreased for wānanga in terms of course and qualification completion. Across sectors, the universities continued to have the highest course completion rate (86%) while qualification completions were highest at PTEs (83%). This was largely attributable to a drop in EFTS at Level 2 and increases at higher levels at Wānanga, which have impacted both course and qualification completion rates.

In 2014, educational performance across industry training improved in terms of credit achievement compared with 2013 (from 72% to 76%) while programme completion dropped slightly (from 74% to 72%).

Figure 5: Participation by NZQF level, 2011–14
Figure 5: Participation by NZQF level, 2011–14

Over the last few years formal provider-based enrolments have continued to gradually shift away from lower-level qualifications toward degree-level qualifications and above on the NZQF. In 2014 this was illustrated with some small increases across Levels 9–10 (up from 5% to 6%) and Levels 7–8 (up from 55% to 56%), while Levels 1–2 decreased (from 7% to 6%).

In 2014 the majority of delivery was at Levels 7–8 (56%), followed by Levels 3–4 (22%), Levels 5–6 (11%), Levels 1–2 (6%) and Levels 9–10 (6%) (figure 5). This represents a slight increase in postgraduate study (Levels 9–10) and a drop in foundation-level study (Levels 1–2). The largest proportion of enrolments was in Society and Culture (26%), followed by Management and Commerce (16%) and Health (12%) (figure 6).

Figure 6: Enrolments by broad subject, 2013 and 2014
Figure 6: Enrolments by subject, 2013 and 2014

Attendance across 2014 enrolments was made up of 90 percent intramural (students physically present in scheduled teaching sessions) and 10 percent extramural (where students are not required to regularly attend courses on campus), including domestic students living overseas.

This represents a 2 percentage point drop in the proportion of extramural enrolments compared with 2013. As a proportion of total enrolments, extramural volumes dropped most significantly at wānanga (down from 26% to 18% of total delivery in 2014) and to a lesser extent at PTEs (down by 3 percentage points, from 16% to 13% in 2014). In terms of field of study, extramural delivery largely reflected a similar mix to that of intramural: the two fields with the largest enrolments were Society and Culture (30%) and Management and Commerce (22%). Education, however, accounted for 15 percent of total extramural delivery, significantly higher than the 5 percent of intramural enrolments in Education.

Figure 7: Extramural delivery by sector, 2013 and 2014
Figure 7: Extramural delivery by sector, 2013 and 2014
In 2014 the overall enrolment mix across ethnicities remained relatively static, with European accounting for 61 percent, Māori 21 percent, Asian 15 percent, Pasifika 9 percent and Other 3 percent of total enrolments (figure 8). Overall, the ethnic makeup of the tertiary student population is comparable with the national tertiary-aged population, although representation is higher for Māori students (21% compared with 13%) and slightly higher for Pasifika students (9% compared with 6%) than in the national tertiary-aged population.3
Figure 8: Enrolments by ethnicity, 2011–14
Figure 8: Enrolments by ethnicity, 2011-14 Note:
Stated EFTS values may exceed totals quoted elsewhere in this report as students may identify with more than one ethnicity.

Across SAC- and YG-funded programmes, enrolments in STEM subjects accounted for 18 percent of total enrolments across the tertiary sector, with Engineering and Related Technologies and ICT making up 7 and 3 percent respectively. At an individual sector level, the universities had the highest proportion of delivery in STEM subjects relative to their total provision, accounting for 23 percent, while ITPs were next with 17 percent of their provision. The highest proportion of enrolments in Engineering and Related Technologies was at ITPs at 11 percent, while PTEs delivered the highest proportion of ICT enrolments at 7 percent.

Figure 9: STEM enrolments by sector, 2014
Figure 9: STEM enrolments by sector, 2014 Note:
This information is based on both SAC and YG funded programmes

Performance against strategic priorities

This section focuses on SAC-funded participation and performance of TES priority learner groups (Māori, Pasifika and under-25-year-olds) across the tertiary sector.

Youth participation and achievement

Overall in 2014, 136,001 EFTS (166,350 students) aged under 25 years were enrolled in formal provider-based qualifications. This total accounted for about 60 percent of total enrolments (227,803 EFTS), very similar to the previous year (figure 10).

As a proportion of total industry trainees, enrolments of under-25-year-olds went up by 1 percentage point compared with the previous year and accounted for 36 percent (47,949 trainees) of total industry trainees (131,603 trainees). In 2014, 45 percent of total youth enrolments were in programmes at Level 4 and above.

Figure 10: Participation by students under 25 years, 2011–14
Figure 10: Participation by students under 25 years, 2011–14

The largest fields of study for under-25-year-olds were Society and Culture (26%), Management and Commerce (17%) and Health (12%). For youth across both SAC- and YG-funded programmes, approximately 23 percent of enrolments were in STEM subjects, within which 9 percent were in Engineering and Related Technologies and 3 percent in ICT.

Figure 11: Students under 25 years compared with over 25's enrolments in STEM, 2014
Figure 11: Students under 25 years compared with over 25's enrolments in STEM, 2014 Note:
This information is based on both SAC and YG funded programmes

In 2014 educational performance of youth improved overall or remained on par with the previous year across all measures. With the exception of qualification completion, youth educational performance remained stronger than the total student cohort. Among individual sectors, the average educational performance was highest across all measures at universities, with the exception of qualification completion which was highest at PTEs at 83 percent (figure 12).

Educational performance of under-25-year-olds at Level 4 and above improved slightly on 2013 with course completions remaining at 85 percent and qualification completions increasing by two percentage points, from 71 percent in 2013 to 73 percent in 2014.

Overall, achievement of industry trainees for under-25-year-olds either improved or remained unchanged. Credit completion increased (from 74% to 76% in 2014) while programme completion remained at 66 percent. Achievement of trainees engaged at Level 4 and above also improved in terms of credit completion (up from 65% to 80% in 2014) but dropped fractionally in terms of programme completion (down from 60% to 59% in 2014).

Figure 12: Participation and achievement by students under 25 years, 2014
Figure 12: Participation and achievement by youth, 2014

The volume of YG delivery increased in 2014 to 9,596 EFTS (13,354 students) from 7,506 EFTS (9,953 students) in the previous year. This increase was mainly across PTEs, which delivered an additional 1,473 EFTS (2,488 students) compared with the previous year, totalling 6,670 EFTS (9,525 students) for 2014 or 70 percent of total Youth Guarantee provision (figure 13). In 2014 nearly half (46%) of all Youth Guarantee students were Māori and 20 percent were Pasifika.

Figure 13: Participation and achievement of Youth Guarantee, 2014
Figure 13: Participation and achievement of Youth Guarantee, 2014 Note:
Due to the relatively low EFTS volumes involved this graph excludes delivery in schools.

Educational performance of Youth Guarantee improved overall compared with the previous year. In 2014 student retention and student progression performance indicators were published for the first time student progression sat at 39 percent and student retention at 59 percent. Course completion increased (up from 61% to 66%), as did qualification completion (up from 52% to 60%). These improvements were consistent with increases for both Māori and Pasifika students.

Across sectors, Youth Guarantee educational performance was strongest at wānanga (although this was based on relatively small student volumes), while ITPs collectively had higher EPIs than PTEs.

Māori participation and achievement

Figure 14: Participation by Māori students, 2011–14
Figure 14: Participation by Māori students, 2011–14 Note:
The 2011 ITO results are the first to be produced using data from the Industry Training Register (ITR) and they are not strictly comparable to previous years. More information on the impact of the ITR can be found on the TEC website.

In 2014 Māori participation (48,781 EFTS) increased fractionally (up by 340 EFTS compared with 2013) but, as a proportion of total students enrolled in formal provider-based education, the rate remained the same at 21 percent (figure 14). Across the university and PTE sectors, Māori participation remained virtually unchanged, while across ITPs and wānanga, Māori participation increased by 1 and 2 percentage points respectively compared with 2013. Māori also accounted for 18 percent of total industry trainees in 2014 (23,182 trainees) and 15 percent of participation at Level 4 and above.

Figure 15: Māori compared with non-Māori STEM enrolments, 2014
Figure 15: Māori compared with non-Māori STEM enrolments, 2014 Note:
This information is based on both SAC and YG funded programmes.

The largest fields of study for Māori students were Society and Culture (29%), Management and Commerce (15%) and Creative Arts (10%). For Māori across both SAC- and YG-funded programmes, approximately 10 percent of enrolments were in STEM subjects, within which 5 percent were in Engineering and Related Technologies and 3 percent in ICT.

Figure 16: Participation and achievement by Māori students across sectors, 2014
Figure 16: Participation and achievement by Māori students across sectors, 2014

As in the previous year, course completion was the highest at universities and qualification completion was the highest at PTEs (figure 16). Overall, Māori educational performance remained on par with the previous year for course completion and made slight increases for student retention and student progression but dropped slightly in terms of qualification completion. 

Māori educational performance at Level 4 and above fell slightly from 2013. While course completions remained at 78 percent in 2014, qualification completions dropped four percentage points, from 71 percent in 2013 to 67 percent in 2014.

Overall, Māori industry trainees achieved 72 percent credit achievement and 68 percent programme completion. At Level 4 and above credit completion increased strongly (78% from 67%), while programme completion dropped (64% from 70%).

Pasifika participation and achievement

Pasifika enrolments (21,549 EFTS) dropped by 256 EFTS compared with 2013 but as an overall proportion of formal provider-based enrolments remained at 9 percent (figure 17). Pasifika students (9,413 trainees) again accounted for 7 percent of total industry trainees in 2014 and 5 percent of participation at Level 4 and above.4

The volume of Pasifika formal provider-based enrolments at Level 4 and above increased as a proportion of total Pasifika participation compared with the previous year, up from 76 percent to 78 percent in 2014, reflecting a continued shift toward higher-level qualifications.

Figure 17: Participation by Pasifika students, 2011–14
Figure 17: Participation by Pasifika students, 2011–14 Note:
The 2011 ITO results are the first to be produced using data from the Industry Training Register (ITR) and they are not strictly comparable to previous years. More information on the impact of the ITR can be found on the TEC website.

The largest fields of study for Pasifika students were Society and Culture (23%), Management and Commerce (17%) and Health (10%). For Pasifika across both SAC- and YG-funded programmes, approximately 15 percent of enrolments were in STEM subjects, within which 6 percent were in Engineering and Related Technologies and 5 percent in ICT.

Figure 18: Pasifika compared with non-Pasifika STEM enrolments, 2014
Figure 18: Pasifika compared with non-Pasifika STEM enrolments, 2014 Note:
This information is based on both SAC and YG funded programmes

Overall, the educational performance of Pasifika students remained virtually unchanged from 2013. The strongest performance was across the PTE sector, where Pasifika students achieved 80 percent course completion and 78 percent qualification completion (figure 19).

Pasifika educational performance at Level 4 and above was consistent with 2013. While course completions increased from 73 percent in 2013 to 74 percent in 2014, qualification completions fell slightly from 63 percent in 2013 to 62 percent in 2014.

Pasifika industry trainees’ educational performance continued to improve in terms of credit completion (at 71%, up from 64% in 2013) while programme completion dropped slightly (62%, down from 65% in 2013). Pasifika trainees engaged at Level 4 and above improved in terms of credit completion (up from 66% to 76%) while programme completion went down (from 66% to 52%).

Figure 19: Participation and achievement by Pasifika students, 2014
Figure 19: Participation and achievement by Pasifika students, 2014

2Formal, provider-based enrolments are students (excluding industry trainees) enrolled at a tertiary education organisation and undertaking study that contributes towards a qualification. All EFTS and student enrolments refer only to SAC funding unless otherwise stated.
3Based on Census 2013 population data for the tertiary-aged population (15–64 years).
4From 2014 the methodology for this measure changed; the denominator is now the number of trainees with a known ethnicity who are studying at NZQF Level 4 and above.